Solar Energy and Sustainable Development

Published by Center for Solar Energy Research and Studies, Tajoura - Tripoli-LibyaISSN: 2411-9636 (P) , ISSN: 2414-6013 (e)

Arabic Impact Factor - 1.26

Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Wedad A. El-Osta

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Mohammed fawzi
Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering Department, Faculty Engineering, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida, Libya

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Tarek Hamad
Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering Department, Faculty Engineering, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida, Libya 

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AL-Hassan M. Azouz
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty Engineering, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida,Libya

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Abstract:

Abstract: Many developed countries around the world are currently competing to find low-cost, sustainable and clean energy sources. To replace conventional energy sources such as (oil, coal, etc.) for several reasons. mainly, because of the negative environmental impact of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission problem. 
Also, these resources will deplete soon. As a result, seeking for a better replacement of fossil fuels either by converting to electric vehicles or by using other possible renewable energy sources with low (GHG) emissions is essential. Hydrogen is one of the primary potential future alternatives of current automotive petroleumrelated due to its high mass-energy ratio and abundance since it can be obtained from a broad spectrum of sources and by various techniques, such as anaerobic digestion from organic materials, rendering it a prospective target for safe and renewable energy. Hydrogen fuel stations are predicted to have a significant impact on the implementation of hydrogen as a fuel substitution on the worldwide fuel market, especially for heavy transportation. The primary objective of this innovative station branch is not only to promote the idea of hydrogen fuel on the vehicle fuelling industry but also to enhance the advancement of hydrogen fuel facilities while minimizing the danger to the investor. There are, though, some areas that need to be investigated with such drop-in facilities as storage and delivery mechanisms which this study covers. The key idea of such a system is to provide a safe, affordable and accessible car fuel source equivalent to conventional vehicle fuel on the industry, whether it is renewable. The primary goal of this research is to develop a secure, flexible and environmentally friendly hydrogen fueling facility, this design is regarded to be cost-efficient compared to other designs by at least 48 percent. Furthermore, this design showed encouraging signs concerning safety procedures and hazard evaluation where is ranked 6.8 on average out of 25 in the FMEA review assuring it’s safe further.

Keywords:

Hydrogen Fuel; Renewable energy; design

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"Hazard and Economical Evaluation for a Hydrogen Fuel Station"

 

Ibrahim A. Abuashei
Aeronautical engineering, Faculty of engineering, Azzawia University, Azzawia-Libya

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Essaied M. Shuia
Faculty of engineering, Subratha University, Subratha-Libya 

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Hajer I. Aljermi
Physical science, faculty of science, Azzawia University, Azzawia Libya

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Abstract:

Abstract: This paper aims to conduct modeling and simulation of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Plant in Ber’Alganam area (Azzawia-Libya). The thermal analysis of the solar power plant was carried out to identify its characteristics and present the monthly power curves according to measured solar radiation and meteorological data of Ber’Alganam (Azzawia-Libya). The mathematical model of the plant was based on energy balance of each component used to develop the simulation tool using Matlab software. The simulation tool can be used to simulate the solar plant and achieve desired plots and results. Among many techniques used in the field of solar power generation, the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology using Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) or (PT) has been selected. As a sample case, a 30 MW CSP plant was proposed to present the hourly performance and productivity through entire year. The study offered a description of two more technologies; thermal energy storage (TES) and backup boiler in order to enhance and stabilize the CSP plant and the continuous production throughout daytime and estimate the amount of fuel needed for this issue, the results shows, the annual power output by both solar source, TES system, and the backup boiler are 91513, 318.36, and 4690.45 MWh/year, respectively, with respect the solar multiplier is 1.5. The study also concerned with the amount of emissions avoided by using CSP plants, the study estimated that, 18516.4 tons of emissions could be annually avoided by CSP plant rather than conventional plant that uses a natural gas as the energy source. The results demonstrate that, the Ber’Alganam is a good location to construct CSP plants, according to the productivity indicators.

Keywords:

Concentrated Solar Power; CSP, PTC; TES, fossil backup boiler.

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"Modelling and simulation of Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Ber’Alganam area (Azzawia-Libya)"

 

Hamza Ahmed
University of Tripoli
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Abdullatif Musa
University of Tripoli
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Abstract:

Abstract: The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is regarded as the most competitive candidate to replace the traditional forms of power conversion due to its prominent advantages. The hydrogen gas is used as a main fuel in the fuel cells. The hydrogen gas can be produced through the use of solar energy which is connected to alkaline electrolysis cell (AEC) by water splitting process known as electrolysis. In this paper,
a thermodynamic model is presented to design and optimize a direct coupling system (DCS) that has two cells, an alkaline electrolysis cell (AEC) and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Moreover, the performances of the direct coupling system (DCS) are evaluated using numerical model that are built in Engineering Equations solver software. So several parameters concerning the direct coupling system (DCS) such as the voltage of system, the hydrogen rate production from electrolysis which injects to fuel cell and producing power of the full system. The simulations result show that, the voltage of alkaline electrolysis is higher than the fuel cell. The water management process in the whole system is considered satisfactory due to the low value of the losses in the amount of water. The water which is generated from the fuel cell is injected to electrolysis cell, so the electrolysis cell does not need to inject large quantities of water. The efficiency of the system is about 34.85% and this efficiency is satisfactory compared to other systems of power generation as this percentage is due to clean, renewable and environmentally friendly fuel.

Keywords:

Renewable energy; alkaline electrolysis cell (AEC); the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC); power generation.

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"Performance Investigation of Direct oupling Advanced Alkaline Electrolysis and PEMFC System"

 

Abdulghani M. Ramadan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Garaboulli, Elmergib
University, Libya

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Khairi Muftah
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Garaboulli, Elmergib
University, Libya

Abdul-Rahman Al-Naaji
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Garaboulli, Elmergib
University, Libya

Abdul-Baset Al-Soul
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Garaboulli, Elmergib
University, Libya

Akram A. Essnid
Center for Solar Energy and Research Studies, CSERS, Tajoura, Libya

Bualqasem Sawed
Center for Solar Energy and Research Studies, CSERS, Tajoura, Libya

Abstract:

Abstract: Solar air heaters are widely used in many low temperature applications such as space heating, crops drying, desalination..etc. It collects solar radiant energy and transforms it into heat through a fluid (air) flowing inside the system. The outside cold air is heated through the system and delivered to the required application. It is simple, economic and clean. In this study, an experimental investigation is carried out using a test-rig installed at the laboratories facility for Center of Solar Energy Research and Studies (CSERS) in Tajoura-Libya equipped with all necessary measuring instruments and devices. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of process air mass flow rate on the thermal performance of a solar air heater working at different operating conditions under the prevailing conditions of Tajoura-Libya. Experiments were conducted on specified days in August 2019, October 2019 and January, 2020.
Results show that there is a noticeable increase in the air temperatures of the solar air heater as incident solar radiation values increase during the day time, especially at afternoon. The maximum average outlet air temperature measured reaches 60 oC which is suitable for space heating and crops drying applications. Useful heat energy collected is directly proportional to the incident solar radiation. Increasing air mass flow rates leads to a corresponding decrease in the temperature at different locations in the solar air heater. Furthermore, the average thermal efficiency values of the solar air heater range from 35% to 65%. Average overall heat loss coefficient values tend to decrease with the day time. Finally, the present study results coincide with literature and show a good agreement.

Keywords:

Solar Air Heater; space heating; crops drying; thermal efficiency; heat transfer coefficient

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"Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of a Solar Air Heater"

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