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Mohammad Abdunnabi
Centre for Solar Energy Research and Studies, Tripoli-Libya.
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Ibrahim Rohuma
Engineering Academy Tajoura, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tripoli-Libya.

Essam Endya
Centre for Solar Energy Research and Studies, Tripoli-Libya.

Esmaeel Belal
Centre for Solar Energy Research and Studies, Tripoli-Libya.



This review paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the history and the best practices of solar water heaters in Libya. Although, Libya is blessed with high solar potential, there is no wide-spread implementation of this technology due to many reasons such as: the cheap price of both electricity and electric water heaters, lack of clear and systematic policy, and lack of environmental awareness. The Center for Solar Energy Research and Studies (CSERS) has given attention to this technology since its establishment in 1978, and the solar water heating system field test project is one of the research projects in the Center. The paper has shown that there was no attention paid to this technology and even to renewable energy in general in the previous years. However, preliminary information clearly shows the importance of continuing research in this field. Numerous valuable information on solar water heating systems from literature were dedicated and made available for researchers and decision makers. The studies conducted in this field for Libya are arranged in this review on the bases of the topic studied: performance evaluation, optimization, on-site measurements and policies and strategies. One of the most important results retrieved from these studies show that the daily quantity of hot water withdrawn per capita at 45 °C is estimated around 60 liters. The estimated annual amount of energy consumed for water heating per person is 510 kWh. For average Libyan family of six persons, the annual amount of energy consumed per dwelling is estimated about 3060 kWh. The review also presented the history of solar water heaters implementation, manufacturing and testing facilities for quality control in Libya. The study calls upon the Libyan decision makers to take their responsibility and put an urgent action plan to help the wide-spread implementation of solar water heaters in the residential, services and industrial sectors. Such a plan will surely alleviate the ever increasing demand for electricity, save fossil fuel reserves and mitigate GHG emissions.


solar water heaters, field study, policy, strategic plans, SWH testing facility

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"Review on solar water heating in Libya"